Meghalaya has precise historic, geographic and strategic significance for India. Meghalaya "the home of clouds", became a full-fledged State on January 21, 1972. It is surrounded on the north by Goalpara, Kamrup, Nagoan and Karbi Anglong districts of Assam State, and on the east by the Districts of Cachar and North Cachar Hills, also of the State of Assam. On the south and west is Bangladesh. Meghalaya is predominantly domesticated by the Khasis, the Jaintias and the Garos. These tribal communities are the descendents of very ancient people having distinct traits and ethnic origins.
There are different legends, beliefs and findings about the Khasis, Jaintias and Garos. It is said that Khasis were the earliest immigrants who made their way across northern Myanmar to Khasi in the plain of East Assam where they established new centre. Khasis linguistically represents the Mon-khmer speeches spoken in South-East Asia.
Khasi Hills Meghalaya
The Khasi, Garo, and Jaintia tribes each had their own kingdoms, until they came under the British administration them in the 19th century. Eventually, the British incorporated Meghalaya into Assam in 1835. After the Independence in 1947, Meghalaya was given autonomous status within Assam. However the Meghalayans were not satisfied with the arrangement and started a peaceful and constitutional struggle for more independence. The turning point in their struggle came when Assam introduced Assamese as the state language, a language unknown to the tribes of Meghalaya. The Centre recognised their plight and their right for a state of their own. In the year 1972, Meghalaya became a full-fledged state in the Republic of India.
The Physiology of Meghalaya
South of Assam, Meghalaya, situated in the north-eastern region of India, between the Brahmaputra valley in the north and the Bangladesh in the south. The state of Meghalaya (the abode of clouds) in India is geographically known as the "Meghalaya Plateau" or the "Shillong Plateau". The area is made of the oldest rock-formations. Meghalaya consists of the Garo Hills , Khasi HIlls and Jaintia hills along with their outliers formed by the Assam ranges. It is the detached north-eastern extension of the Peninsular India. Part of it lies buried under the alluvium deposited by the Ganga-Brahmaputra system of rivers. This gap is known as Malda gap (between Raj Mahal hills/Chhota Nagpur and the Shillong Plateau).
Nestled in the hills of eastern sub-Himalayas is Meghalaya is one of the most alluring state in the country. It is blessed with abundant rainfall, sun-shine, virgin forests, high plateaus, crystal clear rivers, tumbling waterfalls, meandering streamlets and above all with hardy, intelligent and hospitable people.